Other subjects: later.

Easy / simple explanation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity / time dilation / length contraction

If you have your own thoughts, bring them into the world, by which possibly others get even better thoughts/ideas! The truth is still not known! And if you are wrong, why should you shame yourself, other people don’t know it exactly either. If Physicists were able to explain these kind of subjects clearly to not Physicists, it was not necessary to start this subject.

Don’t give up immediately during reading, because when you continue you can understand it better and you understand afterwards the previous lines better. It is for the first time of course not really that simple (but more simple than you think)!

If I write about Higgs fields, this can also be a kind of Higgs fields (are a kind of energy fields which give a mass or weight to objects and keep objects in place)!

When I write about resistance (is explained at latest), is this the resistance from the Higgs fields because of mass or weight for an object and to keep this on its place, if I write about the extra resistance for high speeds, this is a extra resistance to change the place of an object. This resistance cost no extra energy for a constant speed. If an object has given consciously a specified speed, than has that extra resistance always over won, otherwise the object could not have this speed.

I am writing about resistance and extra resistance to make this more understandable, in fact it is an increasing resistance for higher speeds. This resistance is also called gravity.

Only materials undergo an (extra) resistance, light undergo no resistance and has therefore always the maximum speed which can just not be reached by materials in the Higgs fields.

I keep me to the facts from Physics (enough known but not all, I have not studied Physics, but I have a Mathematics background), but I present my own interpretations according my own thoughts. Relativity is no magic and is understandable in a Newton way! If I think something what others already think, I cannot check that, in each case not read somewhere else in this way, it goes me purely about the truth (and I claim nothing, and do I think nonsenses, I don't care).

The Higgs fields form the dimension Time!

In fact we accept everything around us as it is, how “strange” it looks, that is the same for the Theory of Relativity.

Table of Contents:

1.1 Short summary (for whom is in hurry, in 2.1 starts the longer version, meanwhile both equally in length)
1.2 Examples
1.3 Resistance
1.3a Speed of light always measured constantly, made clearly visible (own thought)
1.4 Time Travelling
1.5 Summarised and personal thought (most logical I think)
1.6 E = m.c²
1.7 Thinking in more dimensions (> 3)

2.1 General
2.2 Time and distances (space)
2.3 Time dilation
2.4 Length contraction
2.5 Relativity
2.6 Symmetry and simultaneity
2.7 Gravity
2.8 Gravitational waves

3.0 My own thoughts about our universe (why the speed of light is always constant, follows sometimes the edge of the Higgs fields, why something can be on 2 places at the same time etc.)

4.0 Last thought for which the text on this page must be updated

1.1 Short summary (for whom is in hurry, in 2.1 starts the long version)

Anyone has always interest in mysterious subjects going further than daily life. For me personally these are currently our brains, the possible existence of parallel worlds and Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. I have not studied Physics but have a Mathematics background so I can follow these subjects slowly as long there are not too much formulas, because otherwise I loose also my interest. I see it as a challenge to explain such subject to others in a simple way, so that my effort is not only selfish (“if I understand it only”). This is also a blog for me to pick up the subject after a while. I have been busy with the subject after my work for 3 years (not continued of course) since 2011 to understand this theory (it costs much time) , and I believe it is time to finish this subject because it is no mystery anymore for myself (unfortunately). I see it as an extension of Newton (or in fact our Christian Huygens (NL)). If parallel worlds can be exist, this shall be a mystery of course. Let's read this subject next near the theory about our brains (and reading about self-learning electronic neural networks). It is all very interesting stuff about the secrets of life. I like it very much to write about my own vision later (a.o. it fascinates me very highly that scientists want to prove that complex life by itself and with great coincidence after coincidence has originated from dead material, with other words we are absolute nothing, a kind of robots, and that must give an strange satisfying explanation about our existence, in any case lacking in imagination. But ok, if this would be possible through “self-organization” possibly available in nature, the next question arises again where is this coming from etc. I think finally Physics shall open gates to discoveries with a total other vision we could think about, possibly our brains must be more developed first to understand these abstract discoveries better, for example see our space originated in a single point in the fourth dimensional space, like a flat area in the three dimensional space. But even in this last case other mysteries should exist for ever in our lives!).

E-mails to discuss my explanation will be removed immediately because this is a business website. Discussions are possible on physics forums worldwide (e.g. in the USA are big forums with many experts, physicists with a degree, who are willing to answer your questions). A very good forum is (I think the best in the world): www.physicsforums.com.

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity short summarized:

Very short: if an object/signal has a constant speed and one has attached a clock to that object, that clock goes running slower, in other words, the time goes slower on that location. For new motions with a constant speed originated on that location, the time goes slower the same, passing motions with a constant speed originated in other locations (with different constant speeds) are observed on that location also slower (a motion effect, so I mean you can observe speeds greater, e.g. to pass an object in motion in opposite direction, but the difference in speed is observed slower with relativity than without relativity). Because materials can never reach the speed of light, a clock always runs and points therefore never to the time 0.

If there is being spoken about time, this means the time read from our clock here on Earth or the time our clock in motion presents to us (where our clock in motion may be). Our clock is made (mechanical or digital) on the fact our Earth turns in 24 hours around its axes (the sun arises and goes down). Times are reading on a clock for us standing still. So see the time in this relation not as something mysterious, but normally as the time reading from a clock made by ourselves.

So we measure motion with a clock, in this case the rotation of the earth, if no motions would exist we could not even made a clock. For example a person walks from A to B and took 1 hour. So during rotation of the Earth for 1 hour (that registers our clock) that person moved from A to B. Speed is the travelled distance from a motion from A to B divided by the passed time on our clock. We go to see now how the ration is between that motion and the motion in a clock (so that is speed). As you see later, motions undergo an extra resistance, only for light is the travelled distance divided by the passed time always the same, so as we measure the speed of light (greatest speed possible) anybody elsewhere in the universe (other worlds) is measuring the same speed (but one uses there very likely other units of course for the meter and second, so there must be a recalculation first), for lower speeds this is different.

Consider our Earth as a system travelling through space with a constant speed (I don’t mean its rotation in this case) on which various motions with a constant speed occur originated on Earth (e.g. a clock, train, light etc.). Such system could also be a train with a constant speed in which motions with constant speeds occur originated in that train etc.

Now it turns out in Physics that if such system travels faster with a constant speed, all motions with constant speeds go slower originated in that system. With other words, that motions undergo a extra resistance from something and go slower. Because a travelling clock with that system has also motions inside, all that motions go slower by which the clock is running slower. Even the motions in a living being go slower, so a living being could getting older under these circumstances because the determination go slower.

Personal thought: objects are kept in place by the Higgs fields (see the Higgs fields as a kind of invisible very light syrup around us), I think how faster a system through the Higgs fields travels, how more the motions in that system undergo extra resistance (in all directions), so it cost more kinetic energy for such system to reach a specified speed, compared with the situation the system travelled slower trough the Higgs fields. So for the same energy is the motion inside the system going slower. For every level of extra resistance, only max. 299.999,999999km can be overbridged per slower second determined by the Higgs fields. Light (is no material with Higgs parts) undergo no resistance and has therefore always the max. speed of 300.000km per (slower) second.

This reduction factor has calculated by our Physicist Lorentz (NL) and gives a time delay in the faster travelling system compared to the slower travelling system. This has called time dilation in Physics and these factor is only important for great differences in speed (e.g. 1/10 of the speed of light etc.), so can be ignored in daily life.

Now it turns also when an observer in the slower system observes an object in the faster system, the object is observing shorter in the travelling direction of the system (inside the systems the objects has the same size because sizes does not change, there is only a time dilation). This has called length contraction in Physics and is the consequence of measurements in systems with another speed than the own system (motion effects because of time dilation). Only perpendicular on the travelling direction of the system is no length contraction, and measurements will be the same seen from both systems. With formulas the length contraction can be recalculated to the real size. Personal thought: Two different times in one direction gives a shorter image = normal image * time dilation for the observer (humans/devices).

Measuring persons in the faster system have no idea from time dilation, only observers from another system with a different speed can observe this.

Light from a faster system, so in which the time goes slower, will be observed in another system with Doppler Effect meaning the frequency of light is different observed. Think at the red (traveling deeper in space) and blue stars (travelling towards to us) we see.

So in the faster system goes the time (is clock) and motions slower, but also the objects/signals coming from the slower system (so going faster) are seen slower within the faster system (a motion effect).

Personal thought: one sees the path of motion for an object from another system in the own system in that way, if that motion with the same kinetic energy stored in that object, in the own system would be originated. Energy is an absolute value.

The most difficult: this is the most special at the Theory of Relativity (and very clever seen by Einstein), in fact from all discoveries. Personally I find it still logical. It goes about what an observer observers and this can be different for other observers. E.g. an observer sees the front of a house and another observer the back, they can’t see at the same time the front and back. Or e.g. an observer sees another observer far away as a little person (perspective), but the same is truth the other way around. Above an observer sees the time slower in the other system (the moving clock runs slower), the observer sees length contraction in the other system and the observer sees the Doppler Effect for light coming from the system with slower time.
Because the time goes slower in 2 directions, the observer in the system with slower time sees the same effects the other way around in the other system, that system goes also faster with regard to the observer. If this observer would move a clock into the direction of the other system, this clock would also running slower (and more slower than the observers clock which already runs slower). So the exchange of info (signals, objects) the other way around undergo also extra resistance. So the calculation with times is for every observer different.
If you want to see all clocks at the same time in your thoughts, remember all clocks are different and therefore give other times, 1 clock can give 1 time. Each clock covered another path of motions. Because the clocks are running different for both observers, the concept simultaneity is also different for both. If clocks are synchronized in one system, these are not synchronized seen from the other system. Therefore the name Theory of Relativity, all is relative to the observer.
See the examples below, possibly it is going more clear. Is this all truth ? By using this way of thinking for GPS satellites, so seen from any direction, they work more precise now. Also an atom clock (precise clock) in an airplane over a great distance, is running slower. And e.g. a muon (is a specific physical particle) has a fixed duration for existence. How higher the speed of the muon, how slower the disintegration, so it exists longer for an observer.

Personal thought: if a system travels in the one direction or the other through the Higgs fields, there is always a extra resistance for the motions within the systems. Think for example at a container filled with gas, in all directions the pressure (or resistance) is the same. An observer sees an object/signal coming from the other direction slower because the time in the other direction goes faster seen from the observer. If the observer sends an object/signal to the other direction, the observer at the other side sees it slower. So time is going slower in each direction. You can’t use 1 clock (your local clock) for both directions for high differences in speeds to exchange times (results would be false), how depends on the situation (see later and possibly by recalculations). In practice this all is difficult to test because of the low differences in speeds. But a clock in motion runs slower. The time is going slower in each direction you look, so means, for an object/signal what you send.

Possibly more clear: so generally how faster something goes, how more extra resistance experienced. This is also the case within systems it selves. E.g. without Einstein/Lorentz (so Newton) two speeds could be added or subtracted. With Einstein/Lorentz the sum of two speeds gives a (bit) lower speed (because there is more extra resistance, cost more kinetic energy than available), and for the subtraction a (bit) greater speed (because there is lesser extra resistance, there is more kinetic energy available).

Light: the speed of passing light (the greatest speed possible) emitted in a system and seen from a travelling clock is always equal (is c or called the speed of light). For other objects with lower speeds is this speed not equal, unless the object has the same speed as the clock (speed of object always 0).

In Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity only constant speeds are handled, so constant motions. Above handles the Special Theory. In Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity also accelerations are handled, but the basics of extra resistance is the same, only the formulas will be more complex. Also the concept gravity is different seen. Above is the extra resistance equally divided in a system. Because of a heavy mass in space is that extra resistance around the mass not equal anymore and fall objects to that mass by following the path with the most less extra resistance (one speaks about curved space). So passing light around a star follows not a straight line, but follows a path in the Higgs fields (see an idea in 3.0).
According the General Theory of Relativity there must be so called gravitational waves generated when two heavy masses in space turns around each other. These gravitational waves cause fluctuations in the extra resistance, for which during passing a local clock would go slower/faster, because the extra resistance is not equally divided anymore in that case. One tries to prove this currently with detectors for laser light, see more in 2.8 Gravitational waves and my own thoughts about it.

It may be clear that it is impossible to register an universal time with our equipment as consequence from time dilation in all directions. We can therefore only work with times seen from our own system, the Earth, and using for history. Somewhere in the universe this shall not be different for other Earth’s. But recalculations are possible when the difference in speeds is known. But when the difference is not very great, time dilation has to be ignored.

Personal thought: I think in one of two systems the time is really going slower and living beings will be older. But it can’t be specified which system goes faster if you were not there. But if you consider two systems with equal speed and one uses energy for the second system to go faster in its travelling direction, the time will be going slower in the second system. But for recalculations between the two systems is not important in which system the time is really going slower, because time dilation works in both directions for the exchange of objects and signals.

Personal thought: if ever science can eliminate the (extra) resistance (time dilation) when the knowledge is there, materials can travel great distances in short time (our time). For humans this is not a good idea because time is going faster, also the determination in our bodies. Possibly there are places in the universe where the (extra) resistance is lesser, e.g. lesser concentration of Higgs fields (around the Earth, black hole, around stars etc.). E.g. in fact gravitational waves prove, one can influence this (extra) resistance.

If the time dilation can be ignored in most cases, demonstrable experiments being difficult because of great speed differences, why we worry about. Firstly because Physics try to find the truth, and secondly this theory has led to the important Einstein formula e = m .c². Besides GPS satellites work more precise now.

1.2 Examples

Examples need not be difficult as long as you understand that there is a difference between a moving clock (clock goes slower, you compare the time or clock with the location coming from or when returning) or to see a motion from a different (moving) location from standing still for which your clock is standing still for you (so own location). The Lorentz formula for the reduction factor (time dilation) is for both situations (as long as the speeds of motions are constant).

===============

light signal L1 to the right emitted on Earth from light source, 300.000 km long and takes 1 second in our time and has the greatest speed possible existing (300.000 km / second)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------->

how sees one this light signal L2 in motion, e.g. from a travelling clock (same type e.g. digital) to the right, so from the light source off ?
suppose the time on that clock goes 0,8 slower, the meters light passing locally is 300.000 km x 0,8 on the same moment, but after the slower going second again 300.000 km so the local speed of light is still the same, meanwhile there is more light send than seen, so if the time goes slower you see light slower passing

--------------------------------------------------------------->

if one sees the same meters passing light in a slower going second while because of the own movement the distance meanwhile between de light source has increased, is imaginable that the light waves larger are observed with other words one sees a lower frequency as observer

===============

if one would travel with the clock the other way around, to the left, towards the light source, one sees after the slower going second the same meters passing light while because of the own movement the distance meanwhile between de light source has decreased, is imaginable that the light waves shorter are observed with other words one sees a higher frequency as observer

===============

it is to understand if nature has specified the greatest speed possible, that in motion this speed not greater can be observed

===============

in case of light in a slower going second, travels emitted light still 300.000km per slower second, but also will light not locally emitted (from a faster time) observed with the same slowness (besides totally smaller observed and on top of that changes it’s frequency for the observer)

===============

so it is imaginable if one from a travelling clock to the right a motion observed with a lower speed that because of the extra resistance this object is observed with a (little) greater speed than the speed differences (normally subtracted), and the other way around a (little) lower speed (normally added)

===============

If one receives light on the own location from different moving locations (e.g. stars), that light come slower to us because seen from the own location our own clock would be going faster in that different locations. One sees this light therefore with different frequencies, so can one calculate the speed difference between the own location and that star (in the own time expressed of course). So no clocks needed in this case.

===============

p1 --> p2,p3

p1 <-- p3

persons p2/p3 travel with a constant speed to the right, off from person p1, time dilation 1/10 (about 0,995 x speed of light), clocks set equally on start at 14:00:00, p1 send light (1 photon or a pulse) to persons p2/p3 at the same time when p2/p3 leave, and is received after 200 seconds as 20 local seconds, when the time at p1 is 14:03:20, it is for p2/p3 14:00:20. If p3 travels back to p1 with time dilation 1/20 at 14:00:20, than it is at p2 (there left p3 and all wear a watch) after 20 local seconds 14:00:40 and at p3 14:00:21. After a while arrived at p1 and watch p3 is behind at p1. This example makes it clearly that the time difference is not to see on the clock at p1, but only on the travelling clock from p3 (and for many other examples there is even no clock in motion, would you use the clock from p1 for exchanging times, this would give false results unless recalculations are used).

Remark: light has always the same speed, but the shape (totally) of light from a faster time changes seen by an observer in a slower time, it is smaller (on top of that changes it’s frequency) .. compare with length contraction for objects in motion ..

1.3 Resistance

So on a location where the time is going slower because of the extra resistance travels emitted light in that location also 300.000km per slower second, so the speed of light is always the same. Passing light from another location with another time will be observed too with the same speed of light (see example above, is imaginable) but slower seen (besides totally smaller observed and on top of that changes it’s frequency for the observer).

Other motions than light originated on that location go in ratio compared with a location where the time is going faster, the same (only slower). Because a local clock and the motion itself undergo the same extra resistance. A motion originated in another location with another time, will be observed in contrast of light (lower speeds) with different speeds. Because separable speed components may not anymore be pure added or subtracted. Normally (without extra resistance) would you see the pure difference in speed. But as well as the motion related to that pure speed difference, as the motions in the local clock undergo extra resistance, but not proportional. This as a consequence from more or less available kinetic energy.

A motion originated in a specified time in a system (compare e.g. with the beginning point (time 0) where our universe has originated, do you see in another system with another speed always slower, for the same available kinetic energy (because the time goes slower in every direction).

What could be that extra resistance ?

Personal thought: I think the Higgs fields. Higgs fields keep an object in place, if the constant speed increases, an object is keeping in place proportional, but it seems there is a extra resistance to change that place for a higher constant speed. It is no friction because in space there is no lost of kinetic energy for a constant speed. As a system S2 starting from an identical system S1 in the own time has a higher constant speed, than that extra resistance has over won by more kinetic energy for building up of that constant speed, but constant motions originated inside S2 (like in a clock, under the same circumstances as in S1) undergo more extra resistance (because have also an own constant speed) and go therefore slower. Probably the Higgs fields give (extra) resistance but no friction because they cannot take kinetic energy.

What is the difference between two same speeds in a system with faster time and a slower time ?

It cost lesser kinetic energy compared, in the system with slower time to reach that speed (to over bridge that distance) because all is going slower. But don’t forget the speed in the slower system is calculated in a slower time (1 second takes longer, recalculated a lower speed in the system with faster time). This fits also in living longer in a slower going time.

But the concentration of Higgs fields on location can be different in systems through Physics processes by which the extra resistance varies (around the Earth, black hole, around stars etc.). When the extra resistance is lesser, motions in systems go faster, so a clock goes faster. But it is always be valid probably in the Higgs fields, that also for a faster second 300.000km can be overbridged for light.

1.3a Speed of light always measured constantly, made clearly visible (own thought)

I show the travelled distance for 1 meter / local second for different reduction factors at the same moment (1, 0.8, 0.6 en 0.4), below the travelled distance for the whole slower second, the first second is from the own system (our clock time).

<---------1-------------------->
<---------1-------------------->
<---------------------------------300.000km------------------------------------------------------------------->

<---------0.8------------>
<---------1-------------------->
<---------------------------------300.000km------------------------------------------------------------------->

<---------0.6------>
<---------1-------------------->
<---------------------------------300.000km------------------------------------------------------------------->

<---------0.4>
<---------1-------------------->
<---------------------------------300.000km------------------------------------------------------------------->

So if 1 second has passed in our time, there is compared 0.8s, 0.6s or 0.4 second passed in the slower going system. If there is a whole slower second passed, there is in our time 1/0.8=1.25s, 1/0.6=1.66s and 1/0.4=2.5 second passed. Then there is 1 meter distance travelled in the slower going system.
The Higgs fields allow for each slowness in the local second that max. 300.000km can be overbridged, so that is the max. speed.
Material has Higgs parts inside and therefore undergo resistance in the Higgs fields, but for each resistance a new originated motion is possible, therefore the max. relative speed is never reached because there would no new motion possible anymore.
Light has no Higgs parts, different build up, undergo no resistance and has always the max. speed possible in the Higgs fields.

1.4 Time Travelling

So the time goes in all directions slower in systems or from passing signals/objects from other systems. If something special is needed to travel in time, you can only enter a system what in your own time is fired fast (slower is not possible), within that system everything goes slower, if you return after a long time the others are older and the environment changed probably. So with time traveling you can only miss a nice time.

1.5 Summarised and personal thought (most logical I think)

“Local time” as existing as on our Earth and others (the rate of a clock or called our time) is determined through the path of all motions and the (extra) resistance which has led to this motion of our Earth from the beginning point (time 0) our universe has originated. This is true for all “local times” for each system/object. Generally: the “local time” for a system/object is determined through the path of all motions and the extra resistance which has led to this motion for the system/object from the beginning point (time 0) our universe has originated. So you can have e.g. 2 systems/objects with a speed to each other with the same “local time”, but the extra resistance (time dilations) for motions (in 2 directions) originated in that systems/objects are valid seen from that “local times” (starting points). In practice must be specified very precise how the calculation of the time dilations will be per situation by determining the path of all motions because of “local times” (this can be the previous motion). In space Lorentz can be used for constant speeds when the extra resistance is equally divided (Special Theory of Relativity), e.g. around our Earth is this different because the extra resistance varies (General Theory of Relativity).
In the average case a system/object S2 in motion has originated from a system/object S1 in motion with its “local time”. In S2 the time will be going really slower and to express in time from S1. Motions originated in S2 direction S1, will be going more slower.
In the beginning point (time 0) the speed of light is born and travels 300.000 km / second for the duration of the local born second. That speed is determined because of the Higgs fields I think. Other objects/speeds are born and for every speed, time goes slower because of the extra resistance of the Higgs fields. 300.000km / local second can always be overbridged in the Higgs fields, so the speed of light, because undergo no resistance.
One sees the path of motion for an object from another system in the own system in that way, if that motion with the same kinetic energy stored in that object, in the own system would be originated. Energy is an absolute value.
Relativity is correct I think but only seen from the beginning point our universe has originated, so the total energy (included the kinetic energy) of objects, local time, path of motions etc. But observers see through different speeds in respect to each other’s things different, but things which are really existing seen from the beginning point of our universe .. probably sees one the increase in slowness or kinetic energy from 1 of both ..

1.6 E = m.c²

(m = massa or weight, v = speed, c = speed of light)
This formula is in fact E = γ . m . c² and means all available energies added inside and outside an object, so also the energy stored into the atom kernels, and so also the kinetic energy. This formula is found from the relativistic laws for keeping energy and impulse, and are the same for lower speeds as we known them. Also Maxwell has contributed with his found formula for energy and impulse of light. It all means that mass is a form of energy.
The kinetic energy for lower speeds is ½ . m . v² and than is the total energy E = m . c² (γ = 1).
For higher speeds is γ > 1 and increases the kinetic energy, e.g. for a speed ½ . c (half of light speed) is this energy 10x greater (dus 5 . m. v (= ½ . c)²).
The force (General Theory of Relativity) necessary to reach this constant speed, is greater in the direction of motion than perpendicular on that direction, so you think immediately at the length contraction (not there perpendicular on the direction of motion).
So just a clock goes slower in all directions seen from an observer, also the kinetic energy increases for all systems/objects seen from an observer, but the energy from all materials (total energy atom kernels) is equally for anybody and that is m . c².

Personal thought : so how faster an object goes how more extra resistance. Gives no friction of the Higgs fields in space, so energy is kept in the form of kinetic energy. New motions (or already there inside the system/object) go slower (also inside a clock). These undergo (extra) resistance in the Higgs fields in all directions. There is no friction but only (extra) resistance. There is lesser force needed perpendicular on that motion direction to reach the speed v for material, because perpendicular you go from 0 to v, so the resistance difference is on lower levels, in the motion direction you go from v1 to v2 so difference v but the resistance difference is on higher levels. But the same time dilation for both.
The Higgs fields form the dimension Time! I would think that the rest mass m, must be the mass from the moment the material has formed. By motions is there kinetic energy added and is a translation from the resistances in the path of motions. So the “local time” for a clock has determined like on our Earth.
γ . m is the mass + extra kinetic energy seen from an observer. Energy is an absolute value. So m must be the rest mass included the kinetic energy already stored from previous motions seen from the beginning point our universe has originated. But because the energy in the atom kernels is so great in value, this kinetic energy is just a small part, so difficult to prove. You understand me already, I personally don’t believe for 100% in relativity. It seems not to be correct totally when you consider “local time”.

1.7 Thinking in more dimensions (> 3)

I have for the Higgs fields not the feeling yet to think at a separate fourth dimension, maybe later when I go to read about parallel worlds (Quantum Mechanics / String Theory). But .. see also 3.0


2.1 General

Read 1.1-7 first because 1.1-7 has written later with more knowledge!

Since the idea there can be existing parallel worlds, I am being interested (curious) in the Theory of Relativity to understand slowly what one currently knows or thinks to know.

Because I find it meaningless only to understand this difficult theory for myself, I will try to explain on my website, what I understand, more easily to others, who don’t have enough time to read books but want also to know. And of course is this also a blog for myself, so I can continue the subject again after a while. Especially in the beginning, you can make many mistakes in thinking.

Because I haven't enough time left either, this will go slowly, but I can make a start now because I was busy already for many weeks with discussions on forums to understand the basics. If you want to explain something, you have to be sure if you do it in the right way and not telling the untruth. Sometimes I make errors in my explanation but will be corrected after a while.

I shall explain constantly subjects needed to understand a next subject. I shall use formulas as less as possible and when needed pictures. I shall not go to try to be completed because it must be readable all the time.
For who look critical to my explanation, I shall give an extra explanation sometimes in addition (click on the link after the yellow little bulb , the link after this little bulb is in fact for who already know something about the Theory of Relativity).

My own thoughts about time, space, speed of light, speed greater speed of light etc. can be read by clicking on the link after the red little bulb (or the text is already placed there).

E-mails to discuss my explanation will be removed immediately because this is a business website. Discussions are possible on physics forums worldwide (e.g. in the USA are big forums with many experts, physicists with a degree, who are willing to answer your questions). A very good forum is (I think the best in the world): www.physicsforums.com.


2.2 Time and distances (space)

Light is in fact an electromagnetic wave (can be produced by humans) and can be showed like in figure 1 and 2 below. Compare with a water wave. Light exists out a row of small energy-packets, called photons, which causes vibrating the light wave. For now only the speed of light is important in my explanation.

I find it important too, to explain how you must see light (was my problem in the beginning). If you move and switch on a hand lantern (called a light source) which light shines up, the light particles (photons) in your moving direction have the same speed as you have, so the beam goes with you. But light from other sources you can pass.

Because the Theory of Relativity is based on the fact that the measured speed of light (specified by c in physics) is always constant, independent from the speed of your own motion, I go to use the light itself in my explanation to make something clear. So if you measure the speed of light while you are standing still, or measure the speed of light while you are standing in a truck which has a speed of 80 km/hour, always one find the same speed of light c. How you can measure the speed of light, I do not explain that now. But the speed of light is about 300.000 km/second.

The physicist Maxwell has mathematically proved that the speed of light must be always constant (and C) and independent from your own speed of motion. It is a misunderstanding that Einstein has found everything by his own, but has bundled the existing knowledge in his Theory of Relativity and added own found formulas.

Terms as time and distance have only a meaning in a relative way. One measure time and distance (or length) always related to a point of reference. E.g. Amsterdam is 500 km from Paris or Amsterdam-Paris is 500 km, it is e.g. 02:00 pm means the earth has rotated a specific distance around his axes since its position on 00:00 hours.

We have introduced the units meter and second on earth and can measure time and distance via a clock and ruler during standing still. With these defined units we found that c (speed of light) is about 300.000 km/second. We can say now too, 1 second is the time light travels the distance of 300.000 km further, and the travelled distance of light for 300.000 km represents 1 second. We can now use light itself as ruler (via time) and as clock (via its travelled distance). If we use light as a clock, or use a digital clock, both measure the same time.

Now we can ask ourselves, how time and distance will be measured with our units meter and second (determined when standing still) when moving with a constant speed compared to standing still. E.g. suppose another planet in space moving with a constant speed off our own earth and doing measurements there like on our own earth with our own defined units (clock and ruler). This makes our view easier, but is valid for all motions compared to standing still on our earth (e.g. for a moving person compared to a person standing still etc.).
2.3 Time dilation

First, what is time in fact? The rotation of the Earth have we called 24 hours, we have developed a clock which can point to any moment in these 24 hours. So our time is just a motion with a constant speed. In each kind of clock that motion is followed in 24 hours. In de Theory of Relativity we see e.g. if an object in which motions occur with a constant speed, moves with a higher constant speed, these motions inside go slower. So a moving clock goes slower or time goes slower. Why these motions inside go slower must be explained yet somewhere in the future!

We know now for any constant speed, the measured speed of light is always c. So the ration travelled distance / time of light is always c. We still don't know about the distance or time it selves, but we know that ration is always constant.

Time dilation is the most difficult term of the Theory of Relativity but is just nature, so it is just a case of accepting as you are used with measuring time and distances. If you would learn it when being a child, you would not know better.

This term has to do that time progresses different for the one or the other, the difference in time (expressed in our time units) is called time dilation. 1 second for the one has a different duration as for the other by motion. Now I go to try explaining this in an easy way.

Shortly will be explained that the duration of a second become greater (time goes slower). The meter is for everybody the same meter (seen locally), but the length of a moving object will be measured shorter in its moving direction by an observer standing still (not height or width), so e.g. a moving meter stick of 1 meter will be shorter measured with a local meter stick (this is called length contraction, and is an ordinary motion effect, so you must correct your measurement to know the real length of a moving meter stick, just 1 meter). To observe these differences, you must be able to compare this to duration and length you are used to. So only an observer can see these differences, you self are not aware if the duration of a second changes (become greater). It is also important to explain, each observer sees an object what really is there, but can see an object different or can be seen (think at the length of a moving object). E.g. two observers look to the front and back of a building, but they can’t see the front and back at the same time. So observes see things different.

Suppose you are standing still and measure with a special device the meters train passing at a station. If you run with a constant speed in the train's direction, you will see passing lesser meters of train per second with you special device because of your own motion.

Now I go to use 1 sentence to explain time dilation to remember easily, not correct exactly but will be explained again in more exact details after :

see the passing light in thought as the passing time when standing still (travelled distance of light), if you run with a constant speed in the direction's light, you will see lesser light passing (travelled distance of light), with other words the time goes slower for you.

Now in details and for which it will be made exactly correct.

See the passing light in thought as the passing time when you are standing still. After e.g. 1 second is the travelled distance of light c x 1 km (speed of light x time). Now run with a constant speed in the direction's light, you will see the passing light going slower in thought, but that is impossible because the speed of light is c at any moment. So to make this possible, by nature, the clock will be running slower (probably a watch in this case), so the speed of light will be c again, so finally is during your running in the same 1 second when standing still, the travelled distance of light lesser by the reduction factor. If you recalculate the travelled distance to time, you will find a lower time. If two equal moments (e.g. for person 1 who is standing still, and you as moving person 2) are giving a different time, the moment with the lowest time will have a time dilation with other words moving compared to standing still will give a time dilation (time goes slower, while running takes lesser time than standing still for 1 second). Other clocks are comparable with light (time is time), so moving clocks are running slower. Only an observer can see these changes, not you self (an observer can compare 2 clocks, one standing still and one in motion).

In fact all motions travelling with you during your movement undergo more of a kind of extra resistance than standing still. So a moving clock with you runs slower. The passing light, originated in another system and again speed c with a local clock, has as the only motion in the universe the property that its speed in each other system is seen as C (motion effect). Don’t forget, you measure always the time with a clock standing still for you.

For clearness. For an observer standing still runs a moving clock slower from the other moving person, also the observer measures the length (here width) from the moving person shorter in the moving direction (a motion effect). But for the moving person self runs the time slower, but 1 meter stick standing still has the same length (e.g. the moving person carries a meter stick) as a meter stick standing still for the observer.




Figure 1 (slower system)
So we look now as an observer standing still to the moving other. Suppose you are doing measurements with your own meter stick to the moving other. Everything will be shorter in length around you what is moving (not what is standing still for the observer), but in fact it is difficult to see for movements (only for high speeds and from far away). E.g. a moving ruler will be seen shorter in length, the units are shorter than when standing still (in the moving direction). A moving clock will run slower and being shorter too (in the moving direction). Compare light wave, ruler and clock in figure 2 with figure 1. E.g. 1 cm from figure 1 (standing still) has been 0,9 cm in figure 2 (moving), so also the time. E.g. 1 second from figure 1, is 0,9 second in figure 2, so 1 second in figure 2 would be 1,11 second in figure 1, time in figure 2 is running slower. Distance and time in figure 2 in these examples are expressed in unit’s cm and second from figure 1. The units second and cm in figure 2, so during movement, have been shorter. The clock has been shorter in figure 2 (take care: in length but it looks at high speeds as an depressed accordion shape, height and width are being the same), but the time is also running slower, a "second" in figure 2 is a part of a second in figure 1, so the clock in figure 2 is running slower. . So a slower going time by the moving other, has seen by the observer as a slower running clock and a shorter length in the moving direction (here width, think again about what the observer saw at the building, observers sees things different). You self as the moving other does not see these things, for you are distances (length) and time for everything what moves with you (standing still for you), normally as used. Suppose you are on a different planet which moves with a higher speed than our earth.

Only the observer who is standing still, will calculate time is running slower for the moving one. In this way time corrections can be made for a GPS satellite via calculations.

The Dutch physicist Lorentz had found the formula for the reduction factor. Thanks to Lorentz and Maxwell, Einstein came on the idea of the Theory of Relativity. This reduction factor will be very small at high speeds (for motions), so in normal life with much lower speeds we can ignore the reduction factor.




Figure 2 (faster system)
From the formula of Lorentz for the reduction factor follows too that the speed of an object can never be the speed of light, only close to it. Sounds logically, if you would have the same speed as light, time would be standing still. More worse a person would not survive that, nothing would move anymore in your body, so not your heart too.

Under special circumstances, later I will handle that further, you can go slower older than when standing still, and so you will stay younger because time is going slower.

In CERN (the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland) is indeed proved for the speed of rotating particles that it's speed can be close to the speed of light (by adding energy and adding energy) but never equal to it.

2.4 Length contraction


Figure 3 (effect length contraction)
We consider an observer in his own system with a normal running clock and a train standing still. We consider the running train with a constant speed as the second system in which the clock is running slower. The train itself is also an object in this second system (in this case standing still in this second system it selves) and is seen shorter by the observer when the speed is high of the second system (so the running train). This is called length contraction.

Everything is going slower in this second system with a fixed reduction factor calculated by Lorentz, the clock and constant motions compared with the first system. When we let move with a constant speed an electric contact perpendicular on the running train, the observer is not seeing this shorter because it is perpendicular on the travelling direction of the second system, so no length contraction. The motion of the electric contact will be slower than when the train is standing still in the first system. With this reduction factor runs the clock slower and are all other motions slower in the second system.

Perpendicular on the running train we see only 1 time, the slower going time in the second system. In the travelling direction we have two times, the normal time related with the speed of the second system (also time from the first system) and the slower going time within the second system. If on a second parallel rail a same train is parked (standing still), the observer can see this train (normal length) + the shorter running passing train. Personal thought: Because there must be created an image (for humans or devices as observers) at the same moment from the train standing still and the running train while the time for the running train goes slower (also for signals, light etc.), the image from the running train is shorter (normal image of the train standing still * reduction factor).
2.5 Relativity

So time and distance have only meanings compared to a point of reference, both are relative terms.

So we can only express the progress of time for a moving object (e.g. a person) compared to an object standing still. Without a point of reference distance and time have no meaning.

Now the question could be asked, what specifies the duration of 1 second on our earth or the travelled distance of light in 1 second (relative seen this duration of 1 second will increase by a higher constant speed, but any passing light from somewhere, presents the same time to us via it's travelled distance)?

Don't forget that we selves have defined our 1 second on earth as a specific duration. The speed of light is always c (specified by nature) and measured with our own defined 1 second. We can only compare our 1 second with our clock in a different location somewhere in space. In that case we are busy again relative because the other location has a relative constant speed compared to our earth. Probably is in the beginning point (time 0) from our universe the speed of light born and travels 300.000 km / second for the duration of the local born second.

Now the question could be asked, why do we see size as we do on earth e.g. the size of a light wave (how light looks like) when standing still?

That size sees everybody the same, we who are standing still and they who are moving compared to us. We can only say the observer sees other moving objects smaller in its moving direction. Only the observer sees differences. So if person A moves with almost the speed of light compared to a point of reference 1, the observer sees person A much smaller in length (here width, in moving direction) than on point of reference 1 standing still. If travelled person B (with person A) compared to person A, point of reference 2, also moves with almost the speed of light, the observer sees person B much and much smaller in length (here width, in moving direction) as person A etc. etc. Only for calculations is it important to recalculate times and distances for corrections.

E.g. if an observer standing still measures 100 km/hour for the speed of a car (observer sees car shorter because of motion effect, called length contraction), the progressing of time for the driver is different and can be calculated by the reduction factor of Lorentz (driver is not aware of this). The observer uses the reduction factor to recalculate the times (think at a GPS satellite, which is doing measurements and sent its data to us on Earth). But that reduction factor can be ignored for such a speed, this reduction factor will only be interested from e.g. 0.1 of the speed of light.

Now the question can be asked, how can you see a time dilation except in calculations ?

If somebody moves and takes a clock with him/her, we (standing still) measure with our clock a specific time t for that person between a start and endpoint. If we could look very fast, we see on the moving clock, the time going slower. The moving person sees the slower going time too, but is not aware of it.

Only the observer, the observer is the point of reference, sees the other smaller in the moving direction (here width) and a slower going time, the other is that not aware. Only the observer can compare length and times with his/her own length and times. It goes about speed differences, how greater how greater the reduction factor, observed by the observer. Suppose you have a clock, running normal for you all the time where you are on your location. But many observers with another speed see you with different speeds. Each such observer sees your length in the moving direction (here width) and time different thanks to the reduction factor.

This is also a little bit difficult point in physics. Observers see things different (think e.g. from a different angle). E.g. if you move your time is going slower compared to an observer standing still. You are not aware if your time is going slower. So nature shows a shorter length in the moving direction to the observer (here width), you are not aware that. In the next chapter you will see shortly, you will see as observer the other shorter too in the reverse moving direction and time slower going. You compare with your own as observer (point of reference). This is a real physic occasion (being shorter) but in the world seen by the observer (so a motion effect). You should probably not being shorter both, only seen by the observers separately. So observers and objects are real, but observers see objects different or can be seen different.

2.6 Symmetry and simultaneity

Now it will be really funny and probably very confusing for the starting relativist.

Relativity does also mean that both think to be standing still and the other is moving. Think to 2 persons in space, both think that the other is moving.

So everything written above is also valid for the "moving" person/object. So the "moving" person/object thinks too that the other is moving and that the progressing of time for the other is going slower. This will be called symmetry, all is symmetric for 2 persons/objecten. So in calculations times/distances must be corrected seen from both sides.

Consider if time is going slower in one direction, the same is true seen from the other direction, time is not a waterfall, in one direction faster than seen from another direction. Time can't be negative, it goes about the motion in positive meters (also motion can't be negative). So compared to each other, both are moving, both are a point of reference for the other.

For making this more easy, consider next:

p1 ---> p2,p3 --> p3

Persons 2/3 move with a constant speed V compared to person 1, so persons 2/3 undergo a time dilation. Consider person 3 again who moves with the same constant speed V compared to person 2, person 3 undergoes the same time dilation. Than you get this:

p1 ---> p2
p3 <-- p2

Now the problem for many, how can a clock from p1 running faster than a clock from p2 and at the same time a clock from p3 running slower than a clock from p2?

This is a wrong presentation. So you can say the moving direction gives the direction of time. Example: suppose the reduction factor for a specified speed is 1/10 (about 0,995 x speed of light), transmitting light (1 photon or a pulse) by p1 will be received after 200 seconds as 20 local seconds by p2 (but 1/10 slower), and afterwards light (1 photon or a pulse) transmitted by p2 will be received after 20 seconds as 2 local seconds light by p3 (again 1/10 slower, p3 leaves at moment transmitting). So in both directions the time goes slower (mechanics in a clock goes slower). You have to perceive time from 1 observer, because the concept of simultaneity is for both observers different. Suppose the clocks from p1 and p2 and p3 are synchronised at start (14:00:00) and the reduction factor 1/10. If p1 at a given moment watch its clock, p1 would consider the moment of simultaneity the moment of the calculated slower going time, so 200 seconds later is it for p1 14:03:20 and for p2 14:00:20. The other way exact the same, p2 would be consider 14:00:40 (20 local seconds later) and 14:00:21 at p3 as moments of simultaneity. You can watch both clocks only at the same moment for both when p1 and p2 and p3 meet each other again.

The time from p3 goes at most slow and p3 stays therefore something younger.

Is it not possible to see two clocks at the same moment, so I am convinced?

Yes, if you could look very fast, it would be possible, but you can’t, so we have to find another way. E.g. travelling a specified distance with a constant speed where you know the travelling time (measured with a clock standing still), and to compare the time from a moving taken clock with you (starttime set).

Are there experiments which proved a clock is running slower at a higher constant speed?

Yes, e.g. an experiment with an atom clock (precise clock) in an airplane over a great distance, the clock is running slower in that case.
And e.g. a muon (is a specific physical particle) has a fixed duration for existence. How higher the speed of the muon, how slower the disintegration, so it exists longer for an observer.

2.7 Gravity

In Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity only constant speeds are handled, so constant motions. In Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity also accelerations are handled, but the basics of extra resistance is the same, only the formulas will be more complex. Also the concept gravity is different seen. Above is the extra resistance equally divided in a system. Because of a heavy mass in space is that extra resistance around the mass not equal anymore and fall objects to that mass by following the path with the most less extra resistance (one speaks about curved space). So passing light around a star follows not a straight line, but follows a path in the Higgs fields (see idea 3.0).

2.8 Gravitational waves

According Einstein changes the extra resistance around heavy masses in space, if heavy masses turns around each other, so called gravitational waves would be generated according the General Theory of Relativity. These gravitational waves cause during passing fluctuations in the extra resistance. One tries to prove this currently with detectors for laser light, laser light would be going faster/slower detected by an observer (because the extra resistance is not divided equally anymore in that case, also a clock would going faster/slower in that case). Personal thought: the extra resistance around the Earth is lesser because the Earth rotates through the Higgs fields (fields are being transformed), therefore gravitational waves are kept off, they would be measured earlier outside our Earth (but maybe not). If time goes slower or faster in a location, light travels a shorter or longer path, the speed of light is always equally (so this has nothing to do with the Doppler Effect, that is observed when an observer in a different time light from another time observed). There are now a few possibilities: - light would follow a curved path (is detectable) – if the time goes slower, the path of light is shorter (would be detectable with laser pulses, so not 1 full beam of laser light) – if the time goes faster, the path of light is longer (would be detectable with laser pulses, so not 1 full beam of laser light). But the measuring equipment must work in our time, so far from that location where the gravitational waves pass, otherwise you measure no effect (I think, the measuring equipment is the observer). But because the pipes with laser light are positioned perpendicular on each other, one is prepared for many possibilities.

3.0 My own thoughts about our universe (why the speed of light is always constant, follows sometimes the edge of the Higgs fields etc.)

I have started this subject ever for myself from point of interest to know what is time and if there is something mysterious with time, probably because of the many science fictions. Of course is everything a mystery, but time is seen by myself nothing special and good to understand. I understand Relativity also, but I see this more from the beginning point where our universe has originated and so good to understand too. I continue further with reading about parallel worlds and I am curious if I see something special for myself or if this is nothing more than science fiction because one cannot interpret the results from specified formulas very well until now (it is still exciting).

I want this subject concerning time to finish for myself just because you have to wait if Physicists, they spent their live time about these subjects, ever come with some new information, personally it may not become an obsession otherwise you should first start a study about Physics and that is personally something to much, I don't need it to know everything and besides cost too much time. Besides personally seen it goes too much about technics and science in our current world, if these are the only goals in our short lives (I found it more important to live in a nice world with less self-interest, I wished that we were also fanatically in that)!

Yet I have with my own fantasy an image of everything, but it is a fantasy because I have read too little about all these subjects, but it can give ideas. But I find this fantasy not that creasy. I see it as follows.

I see happening the Bing Bang in a point of the fourth dimensional space. This has given a force for which our space has originated, and this space stretch out itself with a constant speed. Possibly Higgs fields are continuously originated at the edge or Higgs fields are available in the fourth dimension and fill this space. Through diverse physics processes originate on locations in this space transformations of these Higgs fields (which give more or less resistance). On the moment that this space starts stretching out itself with a constant speed, light travels with speed c if we should measure this with our clock from Earth. On Earth we have introduced once this unit of time and according this unit is the speed of light c, if we had chosen another unit this could be 2c or even 10c. But the Theory of Relativity learns us that with the chosen unit, the ratio “travelled path of light” divided by the “(slower/faster) time” always constant is, so for us c. Everything what is in motion stretch the space from the starting location and the maximum stretching of this space is always the ratio “travelled path of light” divided by the “(slower/faster) time”, so in our case 300.000km/second. This stretching is again determined in the fourth dimension, so outside our universe. At the edge of our universe that ratio is again c, the clock can run eventually fast in that location. All these stretching’s intersect with each other. From the fourth dimension even extra space can come in (a mini Big Bang etc.). There is a limitation, space can only stretch there where are Higgs fields (with different densities eventually). So as well materials as light follow always these Higgs fields. Materials undergo resistance from the Higgs fields through the Higgs parts, light undergo no resistance but cannot go faster than the local maximum stretching of space and is always c. Materials follow the path of the most least resistance in the Higgs fields, if light cannot follow a straight line through space, it follows the edge of the Higgs fields (light is being curved, in curved space time). Materials undergo as 1 unity resistance of the Higgs fields for which this on molecular level need not to be exactly the same, so there can be differences with the Quantum Mechanics. With the stretching of space for all what is in motion, you can explain the speed of light, it can be something else of course what looks like. Finally you come always at the point, how can this be .. and being always our limit ..

Suppose there is no existing resistance in specific circumstances, something can be on 2 places at the same time and any change can be transmitted immediately. A speed can be limited to the speed of light, but possibly a unlimited great speed exists what in fact not may be called speed anymore (another definition) .. imaginable I find ..

But maybe exists a fourth dimension only in our fantasy, and only possible in Mathematics. Maybe there is only one space, and is a new Big Bang prepared in a black hole after a very long time (and not all equally forcefully), suppose that suddenly its field is eliminated by something .. and the clock in a black hole points probably again to the time 0, nothing is in motion anymore .. so again a special case, outside the black hole (seen as 1 unity) the clock runs, inside the clock does not run .. I can imagine that for myself, a black hole is also in motion and you measure that with a clock, but inside are the Higgs fields in that way spread out that from all sides no motion is possible anymore, so the clock does not run anymore but the black hole as 1 unity is in motion, so unless the available kinetic energy from the unity as 1 (black hole) inside the time is 0 again, just now as everything is exploding (relativity starts again) all parts get pro ratio that kinetic energy with it .. so a not running clock (time 0) says nothing about the available (kinetic) energy, so just as for light .. the world seen from light (is the observer) is empty and time is always 0 .. absolutely nothing specially .. the sequence of events is not important anymore when time is 0 because there are no events anymore, nothing is in motion, a clock is no clock anymore .. time is just what an ordinary clock made by ourselves points to because of the Higgs fields .. why Physicists for this and other subjects always involve other invisible never to prove worlds, is for me a great mystery (it look again the Middle Ages, how should Einstein thought about this), or is this a way to secure subsidy? ..
4.0 Last thought for which the text on this page must be updated

Updated.

(I don’t update this page anymore, time to start another subject)

Here a link to a very interested subject with another view on reality : Holographic Universe!

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